时间：2018-09-21 02:04:46 来源： 本文已影响 人
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), the pioneer of American psychoanalytic novels, is also the first writer in the history of American literature to write short stories, known as the 19th century American greatest romantic novelist.
Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, childhood father died, with widowed mother lived in the town of Salem's grandfather, his childhood self-esteem, suspicious, childhood misfortune and life atmosphere to make him a heart Kind of "painful loneliness", he was not interested in social reform, the rapid development of capitalist economy can not understand. The grandfather believed in Christian Puritanism and Hawthorne was influenced by Puritanism.
In 1825, Hawthorne graduated from the University of Borden University, returned to Salem, created and published dozens of stories and short stories. In 1839, Hawthorne worked at the Boston Customs for more than two years, then entered the "Brook Farm", touching transcendentalism, and met the representative of transcendentalism thought Emerson and Thoreau and others.
Since then, Hawthorne went to Salem Customs office, Salem customs life for his creation of "Scarlet Letter" has a direct impact, "The Scarlet Letter" published his solid position in the American literary world, but also to the future with a huge influences.
Hawthorne was evaluated as a bystander of life, and this attitude of life determines his interest and insight in his inner and psychological activities. He was deeply influenced by the original sin thought, and the original sin was passed on from generation to generation, and the people were guided by good deeds to purify the evil and purify the mind.
His masterpieces include the novel "The Scarlet Letter", "Hexagon Building", short story collection "repeat the story again", "ancient moss", "snow shadow" and so on. The "Scarlet Letter" has become the world's literary classics, Henry James, Ellen Poe, Herman Melville and other literary masters are deeply affected.
The direct influence on Hawthorne's creative thinking is his understanding of family history and religion. Hawthorne's ancestors from the England region of the family, generations are devout Calvin believers. The two generations of ancestors were the dignitaries of the Massachusetts political and religious unity. One is the first speaker of the Massachusetts Colonial Parliament, named William Hassan, notorious for participating in the persecution of the Whigs. The other is his uncle, named John Hassan, served as a local judge. In 1692, in the town of Salem, Massachusetts took place in the history of the famous "deceit". At that time the town of Salem popular with a similar epilepsy infectious diseases, it was falsely accused of this Department of witch trouble. In some Western countries the特发性癫痫病怎么治疗较好re is a traditional idea that the "witch" is the companion of the devil Satan, who have received a supernatural power from Satan, who specializes in the spread of diseases and the killing of babies and so on. The town of Salem is the place where the Calvinist forces are strong, and the Calvin sects have struggled with the Whigs to compete for religious power in order to eliminate the heresy. The case involved a wide range, more than 200 people were arrested, 150 people were imprisoned, more than 10 people were hanged, in fact, this is a religious persecution, many of the victims were innocent residents. Hawthorne's uncle, John, acted as a judge in the event and was known for his religious fanaticalness and cruelty.
Hawthorne's understanding of the history of the whole family, especially his study of the ancestors of the 17th century from England to the North American colonial continent and later fortune research and research made him a more comprehensive understanding of the family's development history and Social status of the New England region in the 19th century. At that time the society was at the beginning of the rapid development of the capitalist economy, and the social structure had undergone major changes and adjustments. In his view, the progress of technology and the use of the machine not only can not improve the moral character of society, but people into a deeper "sin" whirlpool, a "evil wizard." For which he was in front of what happened to be more do not understand. He had come into contact with transcendentalism and had participated in the brooks of the transgressors, but he looked at the activities of Emerson and others with indifference, and even opposed it. Hawthorne was not interested in any social reform program, and even cautious about the major problems of American society at that time. His conservative attitude and the lack of understanding of society are reflected in his deep-rooted Puritan religious consciousness. The intense religious factional struggle in the society and the moral values involved in this struggle had had a significant impact on Hawthorne's work. And in many of his works, Hawthorne directly or indirectly attacked the Galvin religion against the religious fanaticism and the destruction of human religious precepts. But in the depths of his thought still with a strong religious concept of good and evil to see the world, he can not understand, due to the development of capitalism caused by the new social contradictions united into an abstract "evil".
In his view, all social problems, the contradictions between people, the phenomenon of crime and so on are not the root of social material life, but because of the world's inherent "evil" caused. This is the influence of the idea of "original sin" and the inner "fall" in the doctrine of Calvinism on Hawthorne's thought. According to Hawthorne's point of view, if you want to solve all social problems need to start from the "evil", must be from the internal mining. Therefore, in his view, all abstract, mysterious "ev成都的癫痫病那家医院比较便宜il" are the root cause of social problems.
In Hawthorne's family, two ancestors are important administrative officials in the Massachusetts colonies. Nathaniel Hawthorne's first generation of ancestors William Hawthorne came from England in 1963 to Massachusetts, in this early colony, William Hawthorne is a prominent figure.
Hawthorne disagreed with the behavior of his ancestors, the atrocities committed by his ancestors, was so ashamed of Hawthorne's understanding of religion than the average person, and he hated his ancestral practice. The second generation of ancestors John Hawthorne was involved in the trial of the 1692 statement of the messy Salem "deceit", which is one of the three judges, Hawthorne that the behavior of ancestors is a sin, a shame , This event to the young Hawthorne left a deep scars, Hawthorne on his ancestral behavior felt deep self-blame, this remorse so that he in his last name "Hawthorne" added a "w "To become" FHawthorne "to show that he is different from the sinful ancestors.
1825 - 1837, spent 12 years in his hometown had a significant impact on Hawthorne becoming a writer. In his hometown, Hawthorne was keen to explore the history of his hometown. He had read every book in the local library, and he was familiar with the ancient history of the town of Salem, especially the witchcraft. He studied the historical literature about England and engaged in novel creation. Most of his works are based on the brutal religious domination of the colonial period as the background, describing the people's spiritual world, ideological contradictions and religious oppression under the tragic experience.
Hawthorne saw the religious fanaticism and religious doctrine to bring the impact of people, he saw the religious destruction of human nature. In this area of Massachusetts, religion is very closely linked to people's lives, and religion permeates all aspects of life, and religion is even equivalent to law, with supreme authority and effect, but on the other hand, the harsh rule of Puritanism and fanatical Religious worship is to some extent a cruel trampling of human dignity.
Salem is a place where the Calvin Puritan atmosphere is very strong, because here is relatively backward, science is not developed, so the local people's ignorance, this place has a lot of magical folklore and fairy tales, while people advocate Hypnosis, witchcraft activities spread here, the introduction of Calvin Puritanism in North America had a great impact on Hawthorne, it greatly affected the way Hawthorne recognized the world.
Hawthorne's era of life Although the Puritan thought is no longer the leading force of New England, but Puritanism on the American life and ideological influence is far-reaching, Hawthorne's character and Puritanism thought milk blend, puritanism thought His way of thinking and the attitude of the problem, inevitably make Hawthorne from the perspective of Puritanism to obs德州看癫痫病医院哪个好erve people and the world, Hawthorne has a deep thinking and understanding of Puritanism, he was some active in Puritan Of the factors are positive attitude, such as the early American Puritans who have the pioneering spirit, perseverance of the spirit, which is in the body of Hester Prynne is reflected. But on the other hand, the asceticism in Puritanism and the oppression of Puritanism against humanity are what the authors do not agree with and criticize. From the historical understanding of the United States, Hawthorne can profoundly grasp the Puritanism's history of the United States , But the rule and norms of Yan Xun can in some way make people lose their original nature, and Hawthorne is well versed in the influence of Puritanism on people, and The Puritanism has a clear understanding and thinking, although the Puritan rule is no longer strict, but some eternal topics such as the relationship between man and God and the relationship between man and religion, human nature in the good and evil and people's morality Criteria are the subject of concern and concern.
Hawthorne's life is the American Renaissance, the 19th century European romantic thoughts across the sea, came to North America this land, coupled with the North American colonial puritanism thought strong, romantic and local clear The combination of doctrinalism creates a transcendentalist philosophy that has had a significant impact on the later US. Transcendentalism is an important ideological movement in the United States. The period of American literature in the transcendentalism is called the "American Renaissance". Transcendentalism is an ideological and cultural liberation movement with religious colors. Literature and culture have had a significant impact, with profound philosophical thinking as the background, emphasizing the supreme spirit of the spirit and the absolute perception of the traditional religion to refute, the representative of Ralph Waldo Emerson (Ralph FWaldo FEmerson), Henry Davav Thoreau.
Before and after 1841, the wave of transcendentalism swept through Boston and its neighboring areas, and Hawthorne was influenced by transcendentalism. Transcendentalism believed that there was an ideal transcendentalist entity in the universe, Experience, people can be intuition to grasp, people can understand the truth through intuition, within a certain range of people is God, they are a new round of religious reflection and criticism, they abandon the Calvin sect "God as the center" Point of view, against rationality, advocating intuition, to promote the humanistic spirit, advocate individual liberation, emphasizing the value of individuals, this trend on the society at that time had a great impact, especially for Europe's dominant theological ideas, transcendentalism The liberation of American ideology and culture, but also affected the American literature, an indispensable part of American literature.
Although Hawthorne is not transcendentalist fanatical followers, but his relationship with Emerson and Thore请问我爱人的癫痫病要怎么治疗呢？au are very close, in their daily lives, their contacts are pleasant.
In 1837, Hawthorne's first short story collection "repeat the story again" to bring him some fame.
After 1845, Hawthorne entered the creation of the mature period, in 1846 launched the second short story "ancient house moss", but the book only to bring him a modest income. Hawthorne once again seek the help of political friends, get a government office, any Salem customs inspector, served for three years to give up the work. In 1848 the presidential general, different political parties came to power, then replaced a large number of government officials, Hawthorne is also one of them. He experienced a heart and body suffering, and finally calm down, began to create his most famous novel "Scarlet Letter".
In 1850, the "Scarlet Letter" made him famous. "The Scarlet Letter" is the first symbolist novel in the history of American literature. Since the novel focuses on Hawthorne's creative personality and experience, he was immediately criticized by the critics as "the greatest writer born in this century". "Scarlet" income so that he out of poverty, Hawthorne bid farewell to his hometown, his family moved to Massachusetts, West Burke County Lennox. In the Lennox, Hawthorne's creation began to peak, masterpiece gush.
1851 completed the "seven sharp angle of the house" is the description of the family history of the decline of the novel. In 1851 also published a short story collection "Snow Shadow".
In 1852, for the classmate Franklin Pierce campaign president, launched biography: "Franklin Pierce Biography", the works received by Pierce appreciation. Franklin Pierce was elected president, appointed Hawthorne as US Consul General in Liverpool, England.
1853 published fairy tale "chaotic grove story", the two fairy tale has become the classic American children's literature.
Hawthorne during his tenure (1853-1857), he fully understood the British customs, the road impression into the "British notes" (Hawthorne after the death of the notes published by his wife), and essays "our home" (Published in 1863). In 1858, he traveled to France and Italy, written as "French and Italian notes", the novel "jade statue" (published in 1860). "Jade statue" to Italy as the background, is Hawthorne created the last complete novel.